"Not to stop questioning"

Питер Дюсберг "Изобретая вирус СПИДа"

                        Ссылки к Главе 2

 1.  T. D. Brock, Robert Koch: A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology (Madison, Wis.: Science Tech Publishers, 1988), 75. 

 2.  Ibid., 121. 

 3.  T. McKeown, The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage, or Nemesis? (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979).

 4.  K. J. Carpenter, The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1986), I I . 


  5. A. Von Haller, The Vitamin Hunters (Philadelphia and New York:  Chilton Co., 1962).


  6.  H. Bailey, The Vitamin Pioneers (Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Books,  1968). 


 7.  Carpenter, History ofScurvy.  


  8. Ibid.


  9. Carpenter, History ofScurvy.


 10.  C. P. Stewart and D. Guthrie, eds., Lind's Treatise on Scurvy (Edin- burgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1953),408-409. 


  11.  R. R. Williams, Toward the Conquest ofBeriberi (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961), 18.

  12.  Ibid. 
  13.  Bailey, Vitamin Pioneers. 
  14.  E. W. Etheridge, The Butterfly Caste: A Social History o f Pellagra in the South (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Co., 1972), II .
  15. Ibid. 
  16. Ibid.  
  17.  W. C. Winn, "Legionnaires' Disease: Historical Perspective." Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 1 (1988): 60-81. 
  18.  Ibid. 
  19. B. J. Culliton, "Legion Fever: Postmortem on an Investigation that Failed," Science, 194 (1976): 1025-1027.
  20.  House Subcommittee on Consumer Protection and Finance, Legion- naires'Disease, 2.3-2.4 Nov. 1976, 5.


 21. Ibid.

                     Ссылки к Главе 3

1. R.E.  Lapp. The New Priesthood: The Scientific Elite and   the Uses of Power (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), 39-40. 

2.  D.C.Greenwood, Solving the Scientist Shortage (Washington,   D.C.: Public Affairs Press,1958),  23;  National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators-I989, 1 Dec.1989;  "The month in AIDS,"Rethinking AIDS I,no.7 ( I July 1993).



3. Lapp, New Priesthood, 39-40



4.  Greenwood, Solving the Scientist Shortage. 



5. Lapp, New Priesthood, 39-40.






7. National Research Council, Postdoctoral Appointments and Disappointments (National Research Council, 1981), 79



8.   National Science Foundation, Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: A Decade of Change (National Science Foundation, March 1988). 



9.   M.D. Reagan, Science and the Federal Patron (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969),  II. 



10.  Association of American Universities, The Ph.D. Shortage:  The Federal Role (Association of American Universities, 11 Jan. 1990), IV



11.   "Careers '95: The Future of the Ph.D.," Science, 270: 121-136. 



12.  Reagan,  Science and the Federal Patron. 



13. National Science Board,  Science and Engineering Indicators. 



14. Lapp, New Priesthood, 39-40



15.   M. Shodel, "NIH Overview," Journal of NIH  Research, 2(1990):22.

16.   J.A.  Shannon, "The National Institutes of Health: Some Critical Years, 1955-1957," Science 237 (1987): 865-868. 

17. Ibid.



18. B. Moseley, "Interview: D. Carleton Gajdusek," Omni,  March 1986, 62-68, 104-106.



19.   D.C. Gajdusek, C.J. Gibbs, and  M. Alpers, eds., Slow, Latent, and  Temperate Virus Infections (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1965), 5.



20.   P.H. Duesberg and J.R. Schwartz, "Latent Viruses and Mutated Oncogenes: No Evidence for Pathogenicity." Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology, 43 (1992): 135-204. 



21.   G. Kolata. "Anthropologists Suggest Cannibalism is a  Myth, "Science,  232 (I986): 1497-1500.



22. Ibid.



23. Ibid. 



24. D.R. Schryer, "Existence of Cannibalism," Science, 233 (1986): 926. 



25.  Duesberg and Schwartz, "Latent Viruses," 135-204. 



26.   G. Williams, Virus Hunters (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959),346. 



27.    Duesberg and Schwartz, "Latent Viruses," 13 5-204. 



28.  Ibid.



29. Ibid.



30. Barnum. "U.S. Biotech is  Thriving in Japan," San Francisco Chronicle, 12 May 1992, 1,4.



3I .   Ibid.



                                          Ссылки к Главе 4

1. Koelner Stadtanzeiger, 1993.


2. H.D. Stetten and W. T. Carrigan, eds., NIH: An Account of Research in Its Laboratories and Clinics (New York: Academic Free Press [Harcourt Brace Jovanovich], 1984), 350.



3. All such viruses work only in immune-deficient animals that do not suppress the virus, including newborn mice or chickens. Some of these viruses contain special "cancer genes," which create tumors within days of inoculation, but most tumor viruses can only barely promote cancer in already-susceptible animals. The leukemia viruses, for example, only cause cancer in selected strains of laboratory animals that had become progressively more sickly through many generations of careful inbreeding. Unlike healthier animals in the wild, such lab animals more easily develop cancer or other disease in response to mild insults. Often a successful experiment required putting a lab animal

through extraordinary conditions, such as forcing female mice

through many extra rounds of pregnancy. The very fact that such

"tumor viruses" can only affect these weak animals under odd conditions indicates that they would never cause  cancer in humans with normal immune systems.



4. P. H. Duesberg and J. R. Schwartz, "Latent Viruses and Mutated

Oncogenes: No Evidence for Pathogenicity," Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology, 43 (1992): 135-204.



5. Stetten and Carrigan, NIH: An Account of Research; K. E. Studer and D. E. Chubin, The Cancer Mission: Social Contexts of Biomedical Research (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980).



6. G. Williams, Virus Hunters (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959)·



7. W. M. Stanley, "The Virus Etiology of Cancer," Proceedings of the Third National Cancer Conference of the American Cancer Society (1957), 42-51.



8. A. Lwoff, introduction to RNA Viruses and Host Genome in Oncogenesis, eds. P. Emmelot and P. Bentvelzen (New York: American Elsevier Publishing, 1972), I=II



9. J. Tooze, ed., The Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1973), 56.



10.  Duesberg and Schwartz, "Latent Viruses," 135-204.



11. D. S. Greenberg. "What Ever Happened to the War on Cancer?" Discover, March 1986, 55.



12. P. Rous, "The Challenge to Man of the Neoplastic Cell," Science, 157 (1967): 26.



13. Studer and Chubin, Cancer Mission.



14. J. Scott, "Dangerous Liaisons," Los Angeles Times Magazine, I I

March 1990, 12, 16.



15. Ibid., 12.



16. Ibid., 12-13.



17. Ibid., 12.



18. Ibid., 14.



19 Ibid., 16.



20. D.A. Galloway and J.K.McDougal, "The Oncogenic Potential of

Herpes Simplex Viruses: Evidence for a 'Hit-and-Run' Mechanism,"

Nature, 302 (1983): 21-24, cited in Duesberg and Schwartz, "Latent

Viruses," 1 3 5-204.



21. H. zur Hausen, "Papilloma Viruses in Anogenital Cancer as a Model to Understand the Role of Viruses in Human Cancers," Cancer

Research, 49 (1989):4677.


22. Rous, "Challenge to Man," 24-28.



23. Duesberg and Schwartz, "Latent Viruses," 135-204.



24. A. S. Evans, ed., Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control (New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1989).



25. C. E. RogIer, "Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatocarcinogenesis Associated with Hepatovirus Infection," Current Topics  Microbiology and Immunology, 168 (1991): 103-140.



26. J. Cairns, Cancer: Science and Society (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman

and Company, 1978).



27. R. Yuan and M. Hsu, "Vaccines in Asia," Genetic Engineering News,

1 Oct. 1992, 14.



28. Studer and Chub in, Cancer Mission.



29. R. A. Weiss, N. Teich, and J. Coffin, eds., Molecular Biology of RNA

Tumor Viruses (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Press,




30. "Central Dogma Reversed," Nature 226 (1970): 1198-1199.



31. Weiss, Teich, and Coffin, Molecular Biology.



32. N. Wade, "Scientists and the Press: Cancer Scare Story That Wasn't,"Science, 174 (1971): 679-680.



33. R. C. Gallo, Virus Hunting-AIDS, Cancer, and the Human Retrovirus: A Story of Scientific Discovery (New York: Basic Books, 1991).



34. W. A. Blattner, ed., Human Retrovirology: HTLV (New York: Raven

Press, 1990).



35. R. C. Gallo, "The First Human Retrovirus," Scientific American, 256

(1987): 45-46.



36. Duesberg and Schwartz, "Latent Viruses," 135-204.



37 Blattner, Human Retrovirology.



38. S. S. Epstein, E. Bingham, D. Rail, and I. D. Bross, "Losing the 'War Against Cancer': A Need for Public Policy Reforms," International Journal of Health Services and Molecular Biology, 22 (1992):




39.  P. Gunby, "Battles Against Many Malignancies Lie Ahead as Federal 'War on Cancer' Enters Third Decade," Journal of the American Medical Association, 267 (1992): 1891.


40. Greenberg, "What Ever Happened," 47-66.